Background: Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) represents the most frequent hemorrhagic diathesis in childhood. Up to 30% of patients with ITP are regarded as refractory to standard therapy. The rare mortality from acute ITP in childhood is almost exclusively due to intracranial hemorrhage. This complication occurs in less than 1% of ITP patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) in eight patients whom did not respond to conventional therapy.