The neurovascular bundle of the prostate and cavernosal nerves have been used to describe the same structure ever since the publication of the first studies on the neuroanatomy of the lower urogenital tract of men, studies that were prompted by postoperative complications arising from radical prostatectomy. In urological surgery every effort is made to preserve or restore the neurovascular bundle of the prostate to avoid erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the postoperative potency rates are yet to be satisfactory despite all advancements in radical prostatectomy technique. As the technology associated with urological surgery develops and topographical studies on neuroanatomy are cultivated, new observations seriously challenge the classical teachings on the topography of the neurovascular bundle of the prostate and the cavernosal nerves. The present review revisits the classical and most recent data on the topographical anatomy of the neurovascular bundle of the prostate and cavernosal nerves and their implications on radical prostatectomy techniques.