The Republic of Adygea is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus. It belongs to the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation, and Maykop is its capital city. The Adygeans (Circassians), who gave their name to the Republic today, live in various regions of the world. The reason of this is the Russo-Circassian war in the 19th century, this is concluded with exile. Within historical background, the demographic characteristics of the region were influenced very much as a result of mentioned catastrophic events. After this date, different ethnic groups were started to be deployed rapidly to the region. While the population of Adygea increased relatively rapidly until the 1990s, the rate of population growth has suddenly slowed down since the disintegration of the USSR, as is the case throughout the Russian Federation. As of 2017, the population structure of the Adyghe Republic has reached a position similar to that of an ordinary Eastern European country, and the rate of population growth slowed down and even came to a halt.