To date, we could find no study concerning the relationship between mechanoreceptors in the joint capsule of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and hallux valgus deformity. We aimed to investigate the presence of mechanoreceptors in samples obtained from the first metatarsophalangeal joint capsules of patients with hallux valgus deformity to improve our understanding of the clinical and histopathological features of the disease. Samples were taken from the first metatarsophalangeal joint capsules of 13 fresh-frozen cadavers with normal anatomy (controls) and 29 patients undergoing surgery for hallux valgus (cases). For light microscopy, excised specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for routine histopathological investigation. All samples were dehydrated in a series of ethanol, cleared in xylene, and embedded in paraffin. Orientation of collagen fibers was determined on Masson's trichrome-stained sections, and mechanoreceptors were evaluated on S-100-immunostained sections. In the sections stained with Masson's trichrome, the orientation of collagen fibers was regular in the control group. However, coarse and disoriented collagen bundles were observed in the hallux valgus cases (P <=.05). S-100 immunostaining was positive in the sections of both the cases and controls. Finally, free nerve endings were more abundant in the samples obtained from the capsules of hallux valgus cases than from the control group (P <= .05). An increase in the number of free nerve endings within the capsules of the first metatarsophalangeal joints in feet with hallux valgus deformity might have a role in the development of clinically relevant joint pain and instability. (C) 2020 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.