Evaluation of the effects of apocynin on kidney and bladder in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

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Kanpalta F., Ertaş B. , Şener G., Ercan F.

1st International Microscopy and Spectroscopy Congress, MSC2021, İzmir, Turkey, 22 - 24 September 2021, pp.68

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: İzmir
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.68


Introduction: The prevalence of obesity, which is common in developed and developing countries, is increasing. Obesity is in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease and over active bladder. It has been shown that obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease independent of diabetes or hypertension, and causes urinary system pathologies through reactive oxygen species and inflammation. NADPH oxidase(NOX)-2 has a role in oxidative stres mechanisms. Apocynin (APC), a NOX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the negative effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system. Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of APC on kidney and bladder damage in high-fat-diet(HFD) induced obesity. Materials and Methods:Wistar albino male rats were divided into four equal (n=8) groups: Control, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+dimethylsulfoxide (HFD+DMSO) and HFD+APC. Experimental groups were fed with standard (control group; 6% fat) or HFD (HFD, HFD+DMSO, HFD+APCgroups; 45% fat) for 16 weeks. In the last 4 weeks of the experiment, DMSO (15%) to the HFD+DMSO group and APC (25 mg/kg, dissolved in DMSO) to the HFD+APC group were administered via orogastric gavage. Rat weights were measured every week during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated under light ether anesthesia. Leptin, cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride values were measured in blood serum. Kidney and bladder tissues were prepared for light microscopic examinations. NOX-2 and NFĸ-B  protein localisation were evaluated using immunohistochmesitry method. Malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hidroksideoksiguanozin (8-OhdD), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase(MPO) levels were evaluated biochemically. All of the parameters were evaluated statistically. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results:The body weight was increased in the HFD and HFD+DMSO groups. Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased in these groups. Enlargement of Bowman's space and glomerular damage, increased interstitial collagen, degenerated tubules with luminal cell debris in kidney; shedding of apical urothelial cells, vascular congestion and increase of collagen in muscular layer in urinary bladder were seen. Increased NOX-2 and NFĸ-B immunreactive cells were present in both kidney and bladder. Parallel to the morphological findings, MDA, 8-OHdG and MPO levels increased, GSH level decreased in these groups. All these histologic and biochemical results were better in the HFD+APCgroup. Conclusion: High-fat diet causes kidney and bladder damage by increasing NOX-2 activity and inflammation through oxidative stress. Apocynin may ameliorate kidney and bladder damage by inhibiting oxidative stress.