Background. Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) gene polymorphism has an important role in lipoprotein metabolism and could participate in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is also regarded as a risk factor for CVD. The aim of the present study is to further investigate the possible link(s) between ApoE gene polymorphism and plasma PAI-1 antigen and serum lipid profile in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. Material and Methods. We studied 72 PD patients (38 female, mean age 49.9 +/- 16.1 years), 72 HD patients (22 female, mean age 57.4 +/- 14.6 years), and 42 healthy subjects (21 female, mean age 50.1 +/- 18.6 years). Serum lipid parameters, plasma PAI-1 levels, and ApoE genotypes were determined in all subjects. Results. The distribution of ApoE genotypes and alleles frequencies was similar in dialysis patients and healthy controls. In PD patients, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, and ApoB levels were significantly higher than that of HD patients. HD patients with E3/4 genotype had elevated TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels compared with E3/3 genotype. TC and triglyceride levels were also higher in E3/4 genotype than that of E2/3 genotype. PD and HD patients showed a significantly increased PAI-1 level s compared with controls, whereas PAI-1 levels were highest in HD patients. There was no significant relation between ApoE genotypes and PAI-1 levels. Conclusions. The present study suggests that ApoE polymorphism significantly affects serum lipid profile in HD patients and epsilon 4 allele carriers are more susceptible to have atherogenic lipid profile.