This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of intravitreal levofloxacin, and intravitreal levofloxacin and dexamethasone combined in Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis. Albino rabbits (n = 25), infected with an intravitreal inoculum of S. epidermidis (1.0 x 10(5) colony forming units/0.1 ml), were divided into five groups (n = 5). Groups 1 and 2 received treatment 24 h after the inoculation, and groups 3 and 4 48 h after the inoculation. No treatment was given to the control group. Treatment efficacy was assessed by vitreous culture, clinical examination and histopathology. Five days after treatment, groups 1 and 2 had significantly lower clinical scores than the control group (p = 0.004, p = 0.007). The culture results of the treatment groups were sterile. The histopathological scores of the treatment groups were lower than the control group (p = 0.007). Studies on retinal toxicity and dose-response relation are needed to prove the efficacy of levofloxacin in S. epidermidis endophthalmitis. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.