Sweet solutions and pacifiers for pain relief in newborn infants

Akman I., Ozek E. , Bilgen H. S. , Ozdogan T., Cebeci D.

Journal of Pain, vol.3, no.3, pp.199-202, 2002 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 3 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1054/jpai.2002.122943
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Pain
  • Page Numbers: pp.199-202
  • Keywords: analgesia, neonate, dextrose, pacifier, HEEL PRICK, SUCROSE, GLUCOSE, ANALGESIA, TRIAL


In this study we aimed to assess and compare the analgesic effects of orally administered sucrose, dextrose, dextrose or sucrose followed by a pacifier, and sterile water during minor painful procedures in neonates. One hundred thirty-eight healthy term newborn infants were enrolled in this prospective study. They received either sweet solutions or sweet solutions followed by pacifiers before the heel prick (group 1, dextrose 12.5%; group 2, dextrose 12.5% followed by a pacifier; group 3, sucrose 12.5%; group 4, sucrose 12.5% followed by a pacifier; and group 5, sterile water). The median values for crying time and the pain scores performed according to the neonatal facial coding system were recorded. The median crying times were 16.5, 55, 92.5, 102, and 132 seconds in groups 4, 2, 3, 1, and 5, respectively (P = .0001). The pain scores showed that babies in group 4 had significantly lower scores followed by groups 2, 3, 1, and 5 (P = .0001). Although group 4 had a lower pain score and shorter crying time than group 2, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .27 and P = .39). In conclusion, 12.5% dextrose or sucrose followed by a pacifier was found to be superior to dextrose only and sucrose only solutions in pain relief; sucrose followed by a pacifier resulted in lower pain scores and shorter crying time than dextrose when combined with a pacifier. The antinociceptive effect of sweet solutions can be enhanced with a pacifier. © 2002 by the American Pain Society.