Background This study aimed to reveal the differences between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections and non-COVID-19 respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients. Methods Sixty pediatric patients admitted to the hospital between March 11, 2020 and April 15, 2020 with respiratory tract infections were evaluated retrospectively. Among them, 20 patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and chest computed tomography (CT) examinations were included in the study. According to the RT-PCR test results, the patients were divided into the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups. The clinical observations, laboratory results, and radiological features from the two groups were then compared. Results According to the RT-PCR test results, 12 patients were assigned to the COVID-19 group and 8 to the non-COVID-19 group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical or laboratory features. In terms of radiological features, the presence of bronchiectasis and peribronchial thickening was statistically significantly higher in the non-COVID-19 group (P = 0.010 and P = 0.010, respectively). Conclusions In pediatric cases, diagnosing COVID-19 using radiological imaging methods plays an important role in determining the correct treatment approach by eliminating the possibility of other infections.