Nutrient dynamics and eutrophication in the Sea of Marmara: Data from recent oceanographic research


Yalçın B. , Artuz M. L. , Pavlidou A., Çubuk S. , Dassenakis M.

SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, cilt.601, ss.405-424, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 601
  • Basım Tarihi: 2017
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.179
  • Dergi Adı: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.405-424

Özet

This work was implemented to study the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish straits (TSS: Bosporus and Dardanelles straits) for the period 2010-2013 and to calculate winter and summer fluxes of nutrients (nitrates, phosphates) between the Aegean and Black Seas through the TSS. The brackish Black Sea waters reach the Dardanelles Strait with modified biochemical properties. The salinity and phosphates of the surface waters increased westwards. Biologically labile nutrients of Black Sea origin are utilized through biological processes in the Marmara Sea. On the other hand, increase of nutrients due to land based sources has led to eutrophication problems in the area. The sub surface water layer of Mediterranean origin is oxygen depleted (saturation < 30%) and rich in nutrients. Higher oxygen values indicated water mixing of the Sea of Marmara during winter 2012. Ammonium was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen. The study area has been classified from Moderate to Bad trophic status. Izmit Bay also faced serious eutrophication problems together with hypoxic conditions below the halocline. Nutrient fluxes through the TSS showed temporal variation in the upper and lower layers related to changes in both nutrient concentrations and the water mass volume fluxes. Surface nitrates and phosphates outflux from the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean Sea was higher than the influx from the Black Sea through Bosporus strait, indicating high enrichment of nutrients in the Sea of Marmara from anthropogenic sources. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.