Background. Haemodialysis patients (HD) have been characterized by a high incidence and prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Based on the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, we cannot explain this high incidence and prevalence. One of the mechanisms contributing to cardiovascular risk in HD patients may be to uraemic toxins. Cardiovascular risk factors and uraemic toxins themselves may cause endothelial dysfunction, which may play a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in this population. We hypothesized that elimination of uraemic toxins in response to renal transplantation (RTx) can improve endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery in haemodialysis (HD) patients.