We examined the effect of melatonin in prooxidant and antioxidant state in the liver of C57BL/6J mice fed on a high cholesterol (HC) diet. Mice were fed with normal mice chow containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 4 months without and with melatonin (10 mg/L in drinking water) treatment. HC diet was observed to increase malondialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugate (DC) levels in the liver. This diet lowered glutathion (GSH), alpha-tocopherol, and total ascorbic acid levels as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities in the liver, but hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity remained unchanged. Although melatonin treatment did not affect these parameters in mice fed a normal diet, it reduced hepatic MDA and DC levels in mice fed an HC diet. Hepatic alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid levels increased, but hepatic GSH levels remained unchanged in the melatonin-treated HC group as compared to the HC group. Melatonin treatment was found to increase liver GSH-Px and GST activities in mice fed an HC diet. However, SOD activity did not alter in the liver of hypercholesterolemic mice following melatonin treatment. In addition, the histopathological lesions observed in the cholesterol-plus-melatonin group were less severe than those seen in the cholesterol group. According to these observations, we can say that melatonin treatment has an ameliorating effect on the disturbances in prooxidant and antioxidant balance and histopathological lesions in the liver of mice following cholesterol feeding.