The Innervated Gracilis Muscle for Microsurgical Functional Lip Reconstruction Review of the Literature

SAÇAK B. , Gurunluoglu R.

ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY, cilt.74, sa.2, ss.204-209, 2015 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 74 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2015
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1097/sap.0b013e3182920c99
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.204-209


Reconstruction of the lower and upper lip should meet both aesthetic and functional requirements, whenever possible. Achievement of these goals presents a major challenge particularly in extensive lip defects requiring microsurgical reconstruction. Successful reconstructive outcomes have been reported using free fasciocutaneous flaps such as composite radial forearm flap or anterolateral thigh flap in conjunction with static tendon slings. In recent years, neurovascular gracilis muscle transfer has been introduced in hopes to overcome noncontractile properties of these flaps and to restore oral competence by muscle contractility. This article reviews the available data on the innervated gracilis muscle transfer for functional lip reconstruction. Tips and techniques gleaned from all of the current literature are discussed.