In order to ensure that electrical energy reaches consumers uninterrupted, researchers constantly try to improve power transmission lines. To realize this improvement, probable faults should be analysed through every known method, and new methods should also be implemented. In this study, firstly, the Keban power transmission line located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey was modelled. After that, probable short circuit scenarios were applied on the model, and the short circuit faults in the scenarios were analysed by using the Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis is a mathematical method that is used as an effective way to determine the sudden changes in the frequency and time band. The study was successful in determining phase and grounding faults through the analyses of the scenarios using Fourier analysis. The fact that the mathematical method was applied on the probable scenarios on a physical model increases the importance of the study.