Uniportal approach for esophagus and mediastinum is gaining popularity. While a transthoracic approach is applied for esophagus frequently from the 5th or 6th intercostal space on the posterior axillary line, approach to anterior mediastinum is variable with access through right/left chest, cervical and subxiphoid regions. The results of uniportal approach for esophagus and mediastinum are comparable with multiport video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and open approach in terms of bleeding, oncologic adequacy and operation times. Indications are similar with open and multiportal VATS cases, however large mediastinal tumors (>5 cm) and T3-4 esophageal cancers can be challenging in the beginning in terms of oncologic adequacy of the operations. Uniportal approach for esophagus and mediastinum is utilized more frequently and initial reports show that it is feasible and its applicability and advantages will become apparent in the coming years.