Objective: Periodontal diseases are inflammatory chronic infections. Sialic acid (SA) is an acute phase reactant by itself. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between salivary and serum SA levels and clinical parameters in different forms of periodontal diseases. Subject and Methods: Systemically healthy subjects were included in the study; patients with chronic gingivitis (CG) (n = 10), chronic periodontitis (CP) (n = 10), and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) (n = 10), and ten volunteers with healthy periodontium as the control group. Total SA levels were determined by Warren's thiobarbituric acid method in whole saliva, parotis saliva, and serum samples of subjects before and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Full mouth clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and bleeding on probing were also recorded. Results: Before treatment, in both periodontitis groups salivary and serum SA levels were higher than those of controls (P = 0.001). Both salivary and serum SA levels decreased significantly in the patient groups after treatment (P < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of baseline clinical parameters in all groups revealed significant differences (P = 0.001) and these parameters decreased significantly on the 90th day (P < 0.01). There were positive correlations between SA levels and periodontal indices of the CG, CP, and AgP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that SA level in both saliva and serum may be a potentially useful marker to determine inflammatory changes and investigate different forms of periodontal diseases.