Naturally derived molecules can be used as priming or defense stimulatory agents to protect against biotic stress. Fructans have gained strong interest due to their ability to induce resistance in a number of crop species. In this study, we set out to establish the role of fructan-induced immunity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that both inulin- and levan-type fructans from different sources can enhance Arabidopsis resistance against B. cinerea. We found that inulin from chicory roots and levan oligosaccharides from the exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis primed the NADPH-oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst in response to the elicitors flg22, derived from the bacterial flagellum, and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the host cell wall. Neither induced a direct ROS burst typical of elicitors. We also found a primed response after infection with B. cinerea for H2O2 accumulation and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Sucrose accumulated as a consequence of fructan priming, and glucose and sucrose levels increased in fructan-treated plants after infection with B. cinerea. This study shows that levan-type fructans, specifically from bacterial origin, can prime plant defenses and that both inulin and levan oligosaccharide-mediated priming is associated with changes in ROS dynamics and sugar metabolism. Establishing fructan-induced immunity in Arabidopsis is an important step to further study the underlying mechanisms since a broad range of biological resources are available for Arabidopsis.