The aim of this prospective study was to investigate prematurity as a risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The hips of 221 infants (88 female, 133 male, mean age 31.11 weeks; standard deviation (SD) 2.51) who were born in the 34th week of gestation or earlier, and those of 246 infants (118 female, 128 male, mean age 40.22 weeks; SD 0.36) who were born in the 40th week of gestation, none of whom had risk factors for DDH, were compared using physical examination and ultrasound according to the technique of Graf, within one week, after the correction of gestational age to the 40th week after birth or one week since birth, respectively. Both hips of all infants were included in the study. Ortolani's and Barlow's tests and restricted abduction were accepted as positive findings on examination. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and full-term infants, according to the incidence of mature and immature hips (p < 0.001). The difference in the proportion of infants with an a angle < 60 degrees between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The incidence of pathological dysplasia (a angle < 50 degrees) was not significantly different in the two groups (p = 1.000). The Barlow sign was present in two (0.5%) pre-term infants and in 14 (2.8%) full-term infants.