The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract from leaves of Myrtus communis subsp. communis (MC) on acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. On the fourth day of colitis induction, all rats were decapitated. Colitis was assessed by macroscopic and microscopic scores and by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol, lucigenin, nitric oxid and peroxynitrite chemiluminescence (CL). Colitis caused significant increases in the colonic MDA levels, MPO activity, CL values, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores along with significant decrease in tissue GSH level. However, treatment with MC extract reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by AA with the protective effects being similar to that of sulphasalazine treatment. The study showed that MC extract could alleviate colitis in rats and can be considered an alternative therapeutic approach for management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).