Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent. We aimed to assess the effects of rosiglitazone on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats. Wistar rats were fed either MCDD or a control diet in the 4-week induction study; they were given saline or 4 mg/kg/day rosiglitazone. After the induction study period, the rats were divided into four groups and fed MCDD or given a control diet for an additional 8 weeks and received saline or rosiglitazone. Serum and tissue samples were obtained. Rosiglitazone improved inflammation in NASH and improved ALT, alkaline phosphatase, and interleukin-6 levels in the induction study and interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the treatment study. Our preliminary study is the first to show the anti-inflammatory effects of rosiglitazone in NASH. Rosiglitazone's effect on cytokines may be a key mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect in NASH. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.