There exists extensive evidence supporting the presence of reflex modulation in humans during a variety of motor tasks. The soleus H-reflex has been shown to be modulated during static and dynamic balance conditions as well as during various motor tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two different stance positions and visual conditions on soleus H-reflex gain in 15 apparently healthy adults (mean age = 30.27 +/- 6.92 yrs). The soleus H-reflexes were examined in two experimental stance conditions: two-legged (stable) and one-leg (unstable), and two visual conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. To assess the reflex gain, subjects performed ten trials under each of the four conditions and a soleus H-reflex was elicited during the performance of each trial. For each condition the peak-to-peak amplitude of the H-reflex and the EMG activity 50 ms prior to the stimulus was recorded. Differences in the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the soleus H-reflex for the experimental conditions were compared with a 2 x 2 (Stance x Vision) repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was p < 0.05. Results demonstrated significant differences in reflex gain for both the vision (F-1,F-15 = 4.87, p < 0.05) and the stance condition (F-1,F-15 = 14.86, p < 0.05). Although both the stance condition and vision significantly affected the H-reflex gain, there was no interaction between these two variables (F-1,F-15 = 0.17). From these results, we conclude that H-reflex gain was decreased both as stance complexity increased and as visual inputs were removed. Consistent with previous reports, it may be speculated that changes in presynaptic inhibition to the soleus la fibers regulate these gain changes. We propose that vision and stability of stance affect soleus H-reflex gain, but do so without any interactive effects. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.