GAP pre-polymer, as an energetic binder and high performance additive for propellants and explosives: A review

EROĞLU M. S. , Bostan M. S.

ORGANIC COMMUNICATIONS, cilt.10, sa.3, ss.135-143, 2017 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Derleme
  • Cilt numarası: 10 Konu: 3
  • Basım Tarihi: 2017
  • Doi Numarası: 10.25135/acg.oc.
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.135-143


In preparation of energetic composite formulations, functionally terminated pre-polymers have been used as binder. After physically mixing the pre-polymers with oxidizing components, metallic fuel, burning rate modifier and other minor ingredients, they are cured with a suitable curing agent to provide physical and chemical stability. These pre-polymers could be functionalized with carboxyl, epoxide or hydroxyl groups at varying average chain functionalities. For carboxyl-terminated pre-polymers, an epoxy functional curing agents could be used. If the pre-polymer possesses hydroxyl groups, isocyanate functional curing agents are the most suitable curing agents in terms of easy and efficient processing. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) is one of the well-known low-molecular weight energetic liquid pre-polymer, which was developed to use as energetic binder, high performance additive and gas generator for high performance smokeless composite propellant and explosive formulations. Linear or branched GAP can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of corresponding poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with sodium azide through replacement of chloromethyl groups of PECH with pendant energetic azido-methyl groups on the polyether main chain. Positive heat of formation (+ 957 kJ/kg) enables exothermic and rapid decomposition of GAP producing fuel rich gases. Its polyether main chain provides GAP with relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg=-48 degrees C) and presence of hydroxyl functional groups allows it to have easy processing in curing with isocyanate curing agents to form covalently crosslinked polyurethane structure. These outstanding properties of GAP enable it to be used as energetic polymeric binder and high performance additive in preparation of energetic materials and low vulnerable explosives.