Macro and Micro-Level Issues Surrounding Women in the Workforce: Emerging Research and Opportunities, Doç. Dr. Başak Uçanok Tan, Editör, Idea Group Publishing (IGP) , Pennsylvania, ss.58-88, 2019
Entrepreneurship is defined as:
The process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence. (Hisrich & Peters, 2002, p. 10)
Entrepreneurs are people who are motivated to produce and work independently. Entrepreneurs are different than other members of society in terms of risk-taking, ambiguity tolerance, and motivation for self-employment (Daim, Dabic, & Bayraktaroglu, 2016).
Entrepreneurship in a gender framework is a popular topic for both academics and policymakers across the globe (Link & Strong, 2016). For example, in the mid-2000s, the International Labour Organization (ILO) began offering a women’s entrepreneurship development (WED) program for empowering women entrepreneurs in developing countries. It aims to support women in the promotion and development of start-ups. Likewise, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) presents a policy brief on women’s entrepreneurship to show gender gap comparisons across countries, differences between women- and men-owned businesses, challenges faced by women-led start-ups, running businesses, and policy support suggestions (OECD, 2017).
A qualitative meta-analysis was conducted to examine perspectives about women entrepreneurship by reviewing 143 papers published between 2006 and 2015. Research trends were grouped into seven topics (Aaltio & Wang, 2016).
The conceptual development of the field was analysed. The agency theory and expectancy theory were used to explain the issues.
Papers emphasized the scarcity of research. Additional studies in different contexts were suggested.
Some studies mentioned that women-owned businesses increased across the countries.
A comparison was performed between female and male entrepreneurs.
Gender disparity, including male-dominant stereotypes, was emphasized.
Some papers focused on the role performance of women entrepreneurs.
Cultural and national differences on entrepreneurship in developing countries were studied.
According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s (GEM) 2017 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship, women’s entrepreneurial activity passed 10%. It also saw an upward trend in female entrepreneurship across the globe. In fact, women entrepreneurs have different motivations. For example, some women become entrepreneurs as a result of feeling excluded in male-dominated companies (Lerner & Pines, 2010; Pines, Lerner, & Schwartz, 2010). Lack of equal opportunities and social exclusion can direct women to entrepreneurship as a means to inclusion for women and other discriminated groups (Pines, Lerner, & Schwartz, 2010, p.192).