The Ottoman State, the predecessor of Turkey, was a cosmopolitan society where many different people lived in total harmony until late nationalistic currents, mainly provoked from outside, had their impact. Along the course of history, Anatolia had been a melting pot and today's Turks resemble their ancestors in their immense tolerance of ethnical differences. Though such differences are admitted as reflected in children's puns and tongue-twisters, they are never ever horrified at. What gives the cohesion of the country is an esprit des corps based on a traditional culture, which in turn derives its solidity from the roots of a rich history as well as a common fate for all committed to live here. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.