Holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital malformation resulting from an impaired midline division of the prosencephalon into distinct cerebral hemispheres. Hydrocephalus is a frequent problem among the few survivors with alobar holopros-encephaly (aHPE), its most severe form. The literature about neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus in this condition is limited and dispersed, and there are still some points that need to be resolved. We report the case of a newborn with aHPE, hydrocephalus, and central diabetes insipidus. We delineate the complexity of the management of these patients and emphasize the benefits of using an initial programmable shunt valve. Further discussion about management strategies includes reviewing previous reports and the benefits of shunting for hypothalamic osmoreceptor function. (C) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.