In spite of current treatment methods, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the most important reasons of blindness. Increased number of newborn intensive care units and technological improvements lead to survival of increased number of immature infants which in turn leads to increased number of premature infants to be screened. Recently, more profound understanding of the specific effects of molecules such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), erythropoietin (EPO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that play a role in the etiopathogenesis of ROP is suggested, and by determining the levels of these factors in the blood of premature infants, screening of infants with definitive blood levels of these factors is recommended. The aim of this review is to evaluate etiopathogenesis of ROP disease and to determine the specific mediators that play a role in the pathogenesis of ROP disease. Understanding the pathogenesis of ROP may induce changes in screening, monitoring, and treatment protocols. © Galenos Yayinevi.