Newly detected lung nodules during the postoperative follow-up course of a patient who has underwent pulmonary resection, is frequently a diagnostic dilemma. It is crucial to determine if the tumor is a recurrent tumor, a second primary tumor or a benign lesion. Currently, positron emission tomography seems to have replaced most of the invasive diagnostic interventions. In this study, three cases with false-positive nodules interpreted as recurrent malignancy on PET scans are presented. They were eventually found out to be foreign body hyper-reaction granulomas. (c) 2007 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.