Traumatic experiences in childhood shape victims' working models of themselves and others. Disrupted working models due to childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) mediates poor behavioural outcomes in adulthood. Pregnancy is a period that requires mothers to adopt their new roles and activates the aforementioned working models. Hence, the relationships between CAN history and attachment, and the theory of mind and parental self-efficacy were investigated. Two-hundred and eighty-three physically healthy pregnant women, with mean age of 28.72 (SD = 5.59), participated in the study voluntarily. CAN, attachment styles, perceived maternal self-efficacy and theory of mind were evaluated. One hundred and three women (36.4%) were categorized as abused. The abused group had significantly higher scores for preoccupied and indifferent attachment types. The preoccupied attachment score had negative correlation with achievement in theory of mind test. The non-abused group's perceived self-efficacy in parenting skills and in the baby's emotion dimensions were better than the abused group. Number of children, total abuse score and secure attachment score had effect on maternal self-efficacy score. Parents' negative experiences may have a relationship with their parental roles. Understanding of the attachment patterns and related factors may play an important role in strengthening the parent-infant relationship.