The crystallization of Calcium sulfate dihydrate produced by the reaction between pure Ca(OH)(2) suspension and H2SO4 solution was investigated at different pH values, temperatures and citric acid concentrations. Crystal size distributions, filtration rates and zeta potentials of gypsum were determined as a function of citric acid concentrations at pH 3.5 and 65 degrees C. The influence of citric acid on the morphology of gypsum was also investigated and discussed. The average particle size of gypsum was reached to maximum in the presence of approximately 2500 ppm citric acid concentration, where the minimum cake resistance and maximum filtration rate were obtained. In the presence of citric acid, various crystal morphologies such as tabular, plate-like, double-taper leaf-like and flower-like, etc., were obtained. The change of morphology is related to the preferential adsorption of citric acid on different crystallographic faces. (c) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.