The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, but robust biomarkers and diagnostics are still not available. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular biomarker signatures to inform systematic drug targeting in HNSCC. Gene expression profiles from tumors and normal tissues of 22 patients with histological confirmation of nonmetastatic HNSCC were subjected to integrative analyses with genome-scale biomolecular networks (i.e., protein-protein interaction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks). We aimed to discover molecular signatures at RNA and protein levels, which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutic innovation in the future. Eleven proteins, 5 transcription factors, and 20 microRNAs (miRNAs) came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules, BLNK, CCL2, E4F1, FOSL1, ISG15, MMP9, MYCN, MYH11, miR-1252, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-3610, miR-431, and miR-523, was also evaluated. Using the transcriptome guided drug repositioning tool, geneXpharma, several candidate drugs were repurposed, including antineoplastic agents (e.g., gemcitabine and irinotecan), antidiabetics (e.g., rosiglitazone), dermatological agents (e.g., clocortolone and acitretin), and antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone), and binding affinities of the drugs to their potential targets were assessed using molecular docking analyses. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented in this study warrant further attention for experimental studies since they offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of HNSCC.