Research Aimed at Processing the Subject of Migration Using the Oral History Method


Yılmaz A. , Ayaydın Y.

Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi , vol.52, no.52, pp.77-96, 2020 (International Refereed University Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 52
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.15285/maruaebd.559884
  • Title of Journal : Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi
  • Page Numbers: pp.77-96

Abstract

Abstract The purpose of this study is to have students understand and learn about migration and its reasons and cause, as well as to have them empathize with immigrants using the oral history method. This study uses the qualitative research method and the action research design. The study’s participants consist of 30 7th-grade students chosen from a middle school in the Istanbul district of Küçükçekmece using the convenience sampling method. During the research process, students performed oral history interviews with 45 Balkan immigrants. A pre-assessment study was performed prior to the oral history study in order to determine the students’ knowledge of and perspectives on migration. Later on, the students received an oral history education from a specialist. The study uses a semistructured interview form developed by the students under the guidance of their teacher as the data collection form. After the students conducted the oral history study, a final assessment was used to determine their knowledge and perspectives regarding migration. Students’ answers to the pre – and post-assessment questions were examined using the method of descriptive analysis. Upon analyzing the data, the students’ knowledge regarding migration in the pre-assessment was concluded to have been limited to what had been told to them within the context of the class and that they had spotlighted economic reasons regarding the causes of migration. The students were determined to have a limited understanding of the challenges and hardships that immigrants face. In the post-assessment following the oral history application the students’ knowledge of migration was noticed to increase and they were noticed to include religious and cultural reasons as well as economic reasons as for the causes of migration. The conclusion was reached that students’ knowledge of the challenges and hardships immigrants face had increased and that they show a tendency to empathize with immigrants. Also, the students were established to have shown a positive perspective toward the application of oral history. Keywords: Social studies, migration, oral history Summary Introduction Many different methods and techniques exist that are used in social studies education. These methods and techniques enable students to participate actively in lessons and to change their perspectives positively toward social studies courses. As one of these methods, oral history can be defined as making and evaluating interviews with people who have experienced historical events. This method allows students to develop different perspectives on historical events and gain information about these events from first-hand sources. The oral history method enables students to actively participate in the teaching process and contributes to students’ knowledge construction, language development, and research and analysis skills. Method This study uses the qualitative research model of action research. The study has been conducted using technical/scientific/collaborative action research, a type of action research. The technical/ scientific/collaborative action research approach enables researchers and practitioners to interact intensively and to test new applications. In this regard, the oral history method has been used in the process of teaching the subject of migration in collaboration with the researcher and teacher. Ali YILMAZ • Yakup AYAYDIN 402 Before using the oral history method, students’ knowledge and perspectives about migration were first determined using a pre-assessment consisting of open-ended questions. Based on the findings obtained from the pre-assessment, an action plan was developed and implemented to students for improving their knowledge of, learning approaches toward, and perspectives on migration. Findings Prior to the research, the students explained the reasons for migration as economic difficulties, wars, health and education opportunities, unemployment, political pressures, and climate conditions. After the research, the student’s perspectives were determined to have changed; the students had added and emphasized religious, political, cultural pressures, the problem of speaking the native language, and race as reasons for migration. Before the research, the students had mentioned economic, labor, housing, adaptation, language, transportation, disability, and document/passport issues as well as climate conditions for the difficulties immigrants face. After the study, the students emphasized exclusion, language, disdain, and moral issues as the difficulties migrants face. According to the findings of the study, the students stated before the study that they would feel sad, lonely, fearful, and anxious if they had to migrate and that leaving their native place would be difficult for them. After the study, they stated the same feelings and ideas, but however, the students’ feelings were determined to have deepened and they were determined to be concerned about exclusion. After the research, the students stated feeling sorry for the people they interviewed and to understand the difficulties these people experience and how difficult migration is. The students stated having learned more information about migration. Also, they indicated having a better understanding of the difficulties faced while migrating and of immigrants’ situations and empathizing with immigrants through the oral history method. Discussion By using the oral history method, the study has concluded that the students had developed different perspectives on migration and their knowledge levels had increased. According to the findings, the oral history method is seen as an effective method for teaching subjects in social studies classes. The students expressed their desire to make the same experiments and studies. They mentioned the oral history method to have been a pleasant and useful study where they had learned effectively. Students’ positive perspectives toward the oral history method reveals the importance of using oral history and other various methods in teaching social studies courses. The students stated getting more information about migration and seeing the importance of migration through this study. In addition, they indicated having a better understanding of the difficulties faced while migrating and of immigrants’ situations and empathizing with migrant people through the oral history method. In this context, the need has been seen for using the oral history method to create a positive perspective on migration and to have students be empathetic.

Öz Bu araştırmanın amacı sözlü tarih yöntemi kullanılarak öğrencilerin göç konusunu öğrenmelerini, anlamalarını, göçlerin neden sonuçlarını öğrenmeleri ve göç edenlerle empati yapmalarını sağlamaktır. Bu çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada eylem araştırması deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın katılımcılarını İstanbul ili Küçükçekmece ilçesinde bir ortaokulda kolay ulaşılabilir örneklem yöntemi kullanılarak seçilen otuz 7. sınıf öğrencisi oluşturmuştur. Araştırma sürecinde öğrencilere 45 Balkan göçmeni ile sözlü tarih görüşmesi yaptırılmıştır. Sözlü tarih çalışması yapılmadan önce öğrencilerin göçlerle ilgili bilgilerini ve bakış açılarını tespit etmek için ön değerlendirme çalışması yapılmıştır. Daha sonra öğrencilere uzman kişi tarafından sözlü tarih eğitimi verilmiştir. Araştırmada veri toplama formu olarak öğretmenin rehberliğinde öğrenciler tarafından geliştirilen yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Öğrenciler tarafından sözlü tarih çalışmaları gerçekleştirildikten sonra öğrencilerin göçlerle ilgili bilgileri ve bakış açıları son değerlendirme yapılarak tespit edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin ön değerlendirme ve son değerlendirme sorularına verdikleri cevaplar betimsel analiz yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Verilerin analizi sonucunda öğrencilerin ön değerlendirmede göçlere ilişkin olarak bilgilerinin ders bağlamında anlatılanlarla sınırlı olduğu, göçlerin nedenlerine yönelik olarak daha çok ekonomik nedenleri ön plana çıkardıkları sonucuna varılmıştır. Sözlü tarih uygulaması yapıldıktan sonra yapılan değerlendirmede ise öğrencilerin göçler ile ilgili bilgilerinin arttığı, göçlerin nedenlerine yönelik olarak ekonomik nedenlerin yanında, dini, kültürel nedenlere de yer verdikleri görülmüştür. Öğrencilerin göç edenlerin çektikleri zorluklara ve yaşadıklarına ilişkin olarak bilgilerinin arttığı ve göç edenlerle empati kurma eğilimi gösterdikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca öğrencilerin sözlü tarih uygulamasına ilişkin olarak olumlu bir bakış açısı geliştirdikleri tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal bilgiler, Göç, Sözlü tarih