Purpose: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and carcinostatic properties. In this study, the efficacy of CAPE in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats is investigated. Methods: EIU was induced by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the treatment group, 10 mu mol/kg CAPE was injected intraperitoneally immediately after LPS injection. At 24 hr after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in aqueous humor; malondialdehyde (MDA), MPO, and total antioxidant levels in serum were determined. Eyes were enucleated for histopathologic evaluation, and, counting inflammatory cells in iris-ciliary body (ICB), the efficacy of treatment was determined. Results: CAPE significantly suppressed LPS-induced increase in the number of inflammatory cells (p = 0.0001), protein concentration (p = 0.0001), and MPO levels (p = 0.0001) in aqueous humor as well as MDA (p = 0.001) and MPO (p = 0.0001) levels in serum. Histopathologic evaluation of ICB showed significant reduction in the inflammatory cell counts in the treatment group (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: CAPE was found efficient in suppressing inflammation and ocular tissue damage induced by LPS in rats.