Mycobacteria are an important cause of morbidity in humans. Rapid and accurate mycobacterial identification is important for improving patient outcomes. However, identification of Mycobacterium species is not easy, due to the slow and fastidious growth of mycobacteria. Recently, biochemical, sequencing, and probing methods have come to be used for identification. This study compared the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) to those of nucleic acid hybridization (NAH) and the MPT64 immunochromatographic test.