Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is still a common complication of radical prostatectomy. Current treatments of ED are mainly symptomatic. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely investigated as a potential curative treatment. Although MSC therapy consistently improved erectile functions in the pre-clinical studies the initial expectations seem to be unmet. The aim of this study is to critically review the existing studies on use of stem cells in post-prostatectomy ED and understand factors that preclude clinical translation of the available evidence.