It has previously been shown that subchronic and acute administration of L-asparaginase and glutaminase inhibitors D-Aspartic acid (D-ASP) and prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) intensifies and attenuates morphine (M) physical dependence, respectively, by the inhibition of ASP and glutamic acid (GLU) production, and subsequently their normal releases. Tizanidine (TIZ) has long been known to be an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist and inhibitor of ASP and GLU release. Therefore, in this study TIZ has been administered subchronically during the development of M physical dependence to rats in which M-containing pellets had been implanted or acutely 30 min before naloxone (NL)-induced abstinence syndrome. The subchronic administration of TIZ intensified NL-precipitated abstinence syndrome whereas its acute administration attenuated it, as did D-ASP and PLG. On the other hand, TIZ added into the medium prevented the in vitro M-dependent-made guinea pig ileum from contracting following NL application. Furthermore, TIZ stopped the already started contraction by NL of the M-dependent ileum, which completely relaxed later. These effects of TIZ on M-dependent ileum were antagonized by the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. The intensification by subchronic TIZ administration of abstinence syndrome was attributed to the lesser release of ASP and GLU, which resulted in the larger blockade of M of ASPergic/GLUergic receptors due to the lesser release of their endogenous agonist ASP and GLU and consequently the higher upregulation of the receptors. The attenuation by acute TIZ administration of NL-precipitated abstinence syndrome was explained with lesser release of ASP and GLU and concomitantly the lesser stimulation of the receptors. The results of the in vitro experiments were considered supporting evidence for the fact that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonistic effect of TIZ causes the inhibition of ASP and GLU release and for this action TIZ has already been combined with dextromethorphan in the treatment of heroin addicts.