Leptospirosis is an infectious vasculitis, which can occur with different clinical features. While it is generally a subclinical and self-limited infection; kidney and liver dysfunction, pulmonary hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and cardiovascular collapse may occurr. A six-year-old boy presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure, and persistent high fever secondary to leptospirosis. Persistent high fever was resistant to intravenous immunoglobulin and pulse steroid therapy. He was successfully treated with plasmapheresis and hemofiltration with endotoxin-cytokine cleaning filter. In conclusion; leptospirosis may cause thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure, persistent high fever, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plasmapheresis and hemofiltration should be considered in cases of severe leptospirosis with multiorgan failure.