Background : Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a well known causative agent of infection in childhood but clinical presentation may be variable. History and physical examination may not be so helpful for the diagnosis. It is difficult to culture this infectious agent, with the culture technique for the multiplication of the organism for routine investigation hard to obtain. The determination of exposure and prevalence of the disease of any region should be helpful for clinical diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in children aged 0-14 years in Diyarbakir and establish the distribution of infection prevalence of various age groups of children.