Objectives There is a relationship between nonresponsiveness to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes. In healthy population, 4-10% vaccine recipients fail to produce protective levels of antibodies to the HBV vaccine after standard immunization depending upon age and the presence of various underlying diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is an HLA-associated immunological disease. It has been suggested that certain HLA haplotypes which are linked to CD are associated with nonresponse to HBV vaccine as well. The aim of this study is to assess the response to HBV vaccine prospectively in a group of CD and to explore the potential link between CD and HBV vaccine nonresponse by studying shared HLA haplotypes.