An adaptive robotic system has been developed to be used for hand rehabilitation. Previously developed exoskeletons are either very complex in terms of mechanism, hardware and software, or simple but have limited functionality only for a specific rehabilitation task. Some of these studies use simple position controllers considering only to improve the trajectory tracking performance of the exoskeleton which is inadequate in terms of safety and health of the patient. Some of them focus only on either passive or active rehabilitation, but not both together. Some others use EMG signals to assist the patient, but this time active rehabilitation is impossible unless different designs and control strategies are not developed. The proposed mechanical structure is extremely simple. The middle and the proximal phalanxes are used as a link of consecutively connected two 4-bar mechanisms, respectively. The PIP and MCP joints are actuated by a single electro mechanical cylinder to produce complex flexion and extension movements. It is simpler than similar ones from aspect with the mechanical structure and the biodynamic fit of the hand, making it practicable in terms of production and personal usage. Simple design lets to implement adaptive compliance controller for all active and passive rehabilitation tasks, instead of developing complex and different strategies for different rehabilitation tasks. Furthermore, using the Luenberger observer for unmeasured velocity state variable, an on-line estimation method is used to estimate the dynamic parameters of the system. This makes possible to estimate the force exerted by the patient as well, without a force sensor.