The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the physical self-perceptions of Turkish university students with regard to gender and physical activity levels. Secondly, the study aimed to examine the most important physical self-perception variables in the prediction of physical activity participation. 466 male (M-age=21.13, SD=2.08 years) and 419 female (M-age=20.75, SD=1.60 years) university students volunteered to participate in this study. The Physical Self-Perception Profile and Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire were administered to participants. 2 x 2 (Female/Male x High/Low Physical Activity Group) MANOVA revealed significant gender and physical activity group differences in physical self-perceptions in favour of mates and high physical activity groups, respectively (P <.01). Univariate analysis of variance revealed that physical activity scores were significantly higher in males. Perceived physical condition and the perceived sport competence were the most important discriminators of physical activity levels for males and females respectively.