Objective: Various factors are responsible for uremic anorexia. Increase in serum leptin levels and uremic toxins stimulate melanocortin hormone receptors to increase energy consumption and reduce food intake. In this study, we investigated renal excretion of leptin by comparing serum leptin concentrations of healthy controls, and children with chronic renal failure.& para;& para;Methods: Serum leptin, leptin / BMI, albumin, glucose, creatinine, urea, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were eveluated in a total of 33 pediatric patients followed up for chronic renal failure and 29 healthy children in the control group.& para;& para;Results: Serum leptin levels (18.49 +/- 28.55) and leptin / BMI (0.94 +/- 1.36) in female patients were higher than leptin (7.73 +/- 5.65) and leptin / BMI (0.39 +/- 0.25) in the control group (p>0.05). In male patients, serum leptin levels (1.48 +/- 1.36; 4.88 +/- 3.70) and leptin/ BMI (0.08 +/- 0.081; 0.25 +/--0.16) were found to be lower than those of the control group (p<0.01). Serum leptin levels showed a significant positive correlation with BMI in female patients with chronic renal failure and, healthy women; whilethere was no correlation between leptin and BMI in the male patient group. There was no correlation between leptin and glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine levels in all patients excepting male dialysis patients. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and age, time to disease diagnosis, and duration of dialysis.& para;& para;Conclusion: Lack of any correlation between serum leptin levels, and renal functions, and detection of significantly lower serum leptin concentrations in male children with renal failure relative to healthy male children suggest that there might be other factors involved in the synthesis, activity or extrarenal clearance of leptin or its receptor proteins.