Sustainability in the Textile and Apparel Industries Sourcing Natural Raw Materials, Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Editör, Springer, London/Berlin , Zug, ss.1-181, 2020
Ecological and sustainable production has attracted great attention recently because of the rapid consumption of natural resources and increase in environmental problems due to synthetic production activities globally. Therefore, natural-based materials find their place in production activity progressively. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) evince strict regulations for governments in order to clear harmful chemical reactions and environment in line with the genuine environmental awareness that is envisaged by the use of plant-based materials. Identification of the use of agricultural waste and legislations by governments will lead to the use of natural materials in this direction.
Lignocellulose-based fibers are used in the production of green composites because of easy shaping, low price, and variety of raw materials, and they can be considered as suitable candidates for sustainable production in the generations to come. Surface modifications of lignocellulose-based fibers are made by using chemical and enzyme-based agents on the surface of the fibers. This process increases the functional properties of the fibers and enables fibers to be used in the industrial scale. Chemical surface modifications are carried out by conventional methods as well as ecological methods such as ultrasonic energy, microwave energy, and plasma technique.
In this chapter, chemical methods for the fibrillation of lignocellulose-based fibers (bananas, Agave americana, sisal, raffia, artichoke, etc.) are compared with ecological methods (ultrasonic, microwave, and plasma methods) and enzymes in terms of physical, mechanical, and morphological properties of fibers. Thus, it can be concluded that ecological methods improve the properties of the fibers and help to reduce the chemical waste, water, and energy consumption.