The authors sought to determine prevalence, social, economic, and dietary patterns of young children (n = 20) identified as having vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia after admission to their hospital in the last 3 years. The diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency was based on symptoms and clinical findings, findings on peripheral blood films and bone marrow aspirates, and serum levels of vitamin B-12. The children had been exclusively breast-fed without any animal food supplementation. Serum vitamin B-12 levels were also measured in the sera of mothers and found to be low. The authors concluded that vitamin B-12 deficiency might be an important health problem among children of mothers who do not consume animal foods adequately.