We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay consisting of 7 triplexed reactions to identify 11 individual serotypes plus 10 small serogroups representing the majority of disease-causing isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This assay targets the 13 serotypes included within the 13-valent conjugate vaccine and 8 additional key serotypes or serogroups. Advantages over other serotyping assays are described. The assay will be expanded to 40 serotypes/serogroups. We will provide periodic updates at our protocol website.