Background. Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is prescribed to prevent allograft rejection in renal transplantation. Tacrolimus not only has a narrow therapeutic index, but also shows significant interindividual differences. The absorption and metabolism of this drug are affected by multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene polymorphisms that correlated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting in vivo P-glycoprotein activity. This study investigated associations of MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism with tacrolimus blood concentrations and dose requirements as well as acute rejection episodes among Turkish renal transplant patients.