The pelvic floor is at an increased risk of damage during the lifespan of women. Pregnancy, vaginal delivery, aging, menopause, previous pelvic surgery, and lifestyle factors have a negative influence on the connective tissue and muscular components of the pelvic floor leading to urinary incontinence (UI). Pregnancy and vaginal delivery have been identified as the most important risk factors for incontinence. Cystocele, rectocele, uterine, vault prolapse, and/or incontinence can occur due to lacerations of the connective tissue support at different levels. Moreover, muscular damage of the levator complex can lead to widening of the levator hiatus, giving way to the descent of pelvic organs resulting in UI. Although some genetic abnormalities have been identified, their clinical implications remain unclear. Diagnostic evaluations should be performed in accordance with established evidence-based guidelines. Although short-term results of single-incision midurethral slings indicate similar efficacy to conventional midurethral slings, their long-term outcome is still not determined. Scientists continue to investigate the exact causes of stress UI as well as the optimum substitute material using the best surgical reconstructive approach. The recent European Association of Urology consensus statement underlines an imperative requirement for an optimal solution using minimal amount of material related to the indication and higher competence of surgeons for this surgery. High-quality trials with a longer follow-up are currently an unmet need. (C) 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.