The surface modification of the AISI 4140 steel by pulse plasma detonation process resulted in residual stresses. The residual stresses in modified surfaces measured using XRD tilting technique were determined for different process parameters. The results indicated that residual stress developed in modified surface increased from -200 MPa to -1000 MPa with decreasing in nozzle distance and increased from -554 MPa to -823 MPa with increasing in battery capacity. In shortest nozzle distance (60 mm), the increasing in number of pulse from 5 to 10 resulted in decreasing residual stress from -1000 MPa to -340 MPa. It was clearly demonstrated at first time that pulse plasma detonation process parameters significantly influenced the value of residual stress. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.