Background: Studies exploring the relationship between students’ achievement and the quality of the classroom learning environments have shown that there is a strong relationship between these two concepts. Learning environment instru- ments are constantly being revised and updated, including for use in different cultures, which requires continued validation efforts.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish cross-cultural reliability and validity of the Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) in both Turkey and the USA.
Sample: Approximately 980 students attending grades 9–12 in Turkey and 130 students attending grades 9–12 in the USA participated in the study.
Design and method: Scale reliability analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed separately for Turkish and US participants for both actual and preferred responses to each scale to confirm the structure of the TROFLEI across these two distinct samples.
Results: Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients, ranging from α = 0.820 to 0.931 for Turkish participants and from α = 0.778 to 0.939 for US participants, indicated that all scales have satisfactory internal consistency for both samples. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in evidence of adequate model fit across both samples for both actual and preferred responses, with the root mean square error of approximation ranging from 0.052 to 0.057 and the comparative fit index ranging from 0.920 to 0.982.
Conclusions: This study provides initial evidence that the TROFLEI is valid for use in both the Turkish and US high-school populations (grades 9–12). How- ever, the psychometric properties should be examined further with different pop- ulations, such as middle-school students (grades 6–8).