Neuroprotective Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Antagonist in the Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Kuru Bektasoglu P., Koyuncuoglu T. , Akbulut S., AKAKIN D. , Eyuboglu İ. , ERZİK C. , ...More

INFLAMMATION, vol.44, no.6, pp.2499-2517, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10753-021-01520-0
  • Title of Journal : INFLAMMATION
  • Page Numbers: pp.2499-2517
  • Keywords: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotection, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antagonist, traumatic brain injury, NF-KAPPA-B, ROLES, THROMBOGENESIS, CONSEQUENCES, PROTEINASE, EXPRESSION, PROTEASE, CLEAVAGE, RELEASE, STROKE


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antagonists are known for their neuroprotective effects. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of PAI-1 antagonists in a rat mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were grouped as sham (n = 7), TBI (n = 9), and TBI + PAI-1 antagonist (5 and 10 mg/kg TM5441 and TM5484; n = 6-7). Under anesthesia, TBI was induced by dropping a metal 300-g weight from a height of 1 m on the skull. Before and 24-h after trauma neurological examination, tail suspension, Y-maze, and novel object recognition tests were performed. Twenty-four hours after TBI, the rats were decapitated and activities of myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide release, luminol-, and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence were measured. Also, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-10, tumor growth factor-beta, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and PAI levels were measured with the ELISA method in the brain tissue. Brain injury was graded histopathologically following hematoxylin-eosin staining. Western blot and immunohistochemical investigation for low-density lipoprotein receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and nuclear factor-kappa B were also performed. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 8.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA) and expressed as means +/- SEM. Values of p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Higher levels of myeloperoxidase activity in the TBI group (p < 0.05) were found to be suppressed in 5 and 10 mg/kg TM5441 treatment groups (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). The tail suspension test score was increased in the TBI group (p < 0.001) and decreased in all treatment groups (p < 0.05-0.001). The histologic damage score was increased statistically significantly in the cortex, dentate gyrus, and CA3 regions in the TBI group (p < 0.01-0.001), decreased in the treatment groups in the cortex and dentate gyrus (p < 0.05-0.001). PAI antagonists, especially TM5441, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against mild TBI in the acute period. Behavioral test results were also improved after PAI antagonist treatment after mild TBI.