Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease causing recurrent respiratory tract infections. Viral respiratory tract infections are more severe in CF. The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was seen in Turkey on March 11, 2020, and nationwide school closure and lockdown were implemented. School closure and home confinement might have adverse effects on children's physical and mental health. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological reactions of CF patients and healthy controls. Methods This is a controlled cross-sectional study including 7-18-year-old children with CF. The survey included questions regarding family environment and peer relations, self-care, and psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was administered to children via telephone calls under parental supervision. Results We evaluated 132 CF patients and 135 of their healthy peers. Mean age was 11.5 +/- 2.9 years in the CF group and 11.8 +/- 3.2 years in the control group (P = 0.98). There were 55 girls (41.7%) in the CF group and 81 girls (60%) in the control group (P = 0.027). The socioeconomic status of their families was similar. The CF patients were found to be less anxious for family members at risk of COVID-19, less upset about school closure, and less anxious about the COVID-19 pandemic (P < 0.001, 0.02, 0.01, respectively). Conclusions Cystic fibrosis patients seem to show more resilience in coping with the pandemic. Appropriate psychological support should be provided to them and resilience strategies in coping with the pandemic should be nurtured.